Omer who yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honour of being first in their class.
So that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners have unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation." Harvard College had an "Indian College" on its campus in the mid-1600s, supported by the English Society for Propagation of the Gospel.
The diversity among boarding school students in terms of age, personality, family situation, and cultural background created a range of experiences, attitudes, and responses.
Boarding schools embodied both victimization and agency for Native people and they served as sites of both cultural loss and cultural persistence.
Moses Tom sent his children to an Indian boarding school.
I rejoice, brothers, to hear you propose to become cultivators of the earth for the maintenance of your families.
in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Native Americans (as opposed to relegating them to reservations), adopted the practice of assimilating Native American children in current American culture, which was at the time largely based on rural agriculture, with some small towns and few large cities.
The Civilization Fund Act of 1819 promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies (mostly religious) who worked on Native American education, often at schools established in or near Native American communities.
Some of their efforts were part of the progressive movement after the Civil War.
Children were typically immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names (to both "civilize" and "Christianize").
The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were forcibly separated from their families.
Community schools have also been supported by the federal government through the BIA and legislation. By 2007, most of the schools had been closed down and the number of Native American children in boarding schools had declined to 9,500.
During this same period, more Native Americans moved to urban environments accommodating in varying degrees and manners to majority culture.