Nonetheless, the distinct similarity of the artifact material here to that at the Gault (Clovis) and Topper (pre-Clovis) sites leaves open the at least hypo- thetical possibility that the more deeply buried artifacts (apparently at at least a meter or so beneath the terrain surface) might predate the Clovis time frame.If not temporally "pre-Clovis", they certainly are technologically, and may represent the lithic tools from which Clovis and later technology evolved.Such astronomical orien- tation is characteristic of Late Archaic through Middle Woodland earthworks, as is the overall morphology of this structure, which includes a shallow trench along its east side (uphill toward the top of the knob, which affords a long view to the horizon in all directions).There is one gateway through the structure, aligned toward the summit of Day's Knob, which is roughly 117 m (385') horizontally distant and 27 m (89') higher.It is proposed that humans - and maybe even protohumans - routinely modified lithic material to incorporate simple but recognizable zoomorphic and anthropomorphic imagery, often along with at least potential utility as tools.This practice could have originated in Africa, migrating through millennia of ethnic and cultural diversification northward and eastward into the Americas, surviving here into at least the Early Woodland Period (ca. Initially recognized only as crude stone tools, but subsequently as much more, the artifacts have appeared in large quantity at depths of from near the surface to well below, and the surface of this large site has only been scratched.
(The presence of "portable rock art" or "mobile rock art" has long been recognized in European artifact material, and is starting to be seen for what it is at sites in North America.Several spirally fractured deer bones have been unearthed, indicating human activity.Human remains in the form of hair, usually dark brown when not faded, have appeared in direct context with the lithic artifacts. Tom Gilbert attempted mitochondrial DNA analysis of other hairs from the site, but unfortunately none of their DNA had survived, despite their outward appearance of being in good condition.Temporally/culturally diagnostic flint projectile points from the vicinity of the site indicate a human presence dating from the Early Archaic through the Middle Woodland Period, or roughly 10,000 - 1500 years BP. (An overdue attempt at concisely deconstructing it may appear on this sadly disjointed website before too long.More important by far than just this particular site, the finds here have led to the discovery of a simple and consistent zoo-anthropomorphic iconography apparently routinely and usually perfunctorily incorporated into lithic and other artifact material over many thousands of years and across widely separated areas of this planet. Meantime, click here to see the existing clumsy start at this.) Most commonly, the imagery is carved and/or ground into pebble- or cobble-sized stones.Some of the hairs were submitted to the Center for the Study of the First Americans, where in November 2003 the late Dr. It is hoped that hairs might appear that have been adequately protected from moisture, and freezing and thawing.One of the hairs remaining after the necessarily destructive attempt at DNA extraction has been verified by Dr.This material is presented for consideration by anyone with an interest in the early habitation of North America, describing artifacts first recognized and recorded in 1987 at an unglaciated hilltop site in southeastern Ohio.These are compared with similar artifacts from locations in other parts of the world.Ohio's state archaeologists have, however, indicated no interest in further inquiry, on the unfounded assumption that early Native Americans would have left nothing significant in this unglaciated and topographically rugged area (a bit too far from Columbus, perhaps? This author has been proceeding largely on his own with occasional assistance and advice from professional archaeologists, anthropologists, and physical scientists including geologists and petrologists with the training and experience required to determine whether or not a given rock could have acquired its current form entirely through natural processes.Judging from ceramic material and a long, straight, and symmetrical earthwork oriented to true north-south, it appears that the upper artifact layer at this site may date from the Early and/or Middle Woodland Period.